Identity and civil strife in Sudan
Dr. Baqer Al-Afif
Preiew and summarize: Talal Nayer
Translation by Google
This book has been authored by academics, translated by the late Professor al-Khatem Adlan , and Mr. Mohammed Suleiman, and securities are: (race and identity in the Nile Valley) of the preparation, editing and Chrisa Vlohr Caroline Rudd, and the second paper was entitled: (farmer murder in Darfur looks .. on genocide in the Sudan) have been prepared and edited by Sondra Hill and Laura Brown. Walled The third paper (on the edge of identity is the meaning of the North Darfur Peace Agreement?) and published in the Journal of the American Institute of Peace, and discuss these three papers on civil war and its relationship to identity. The book includes analysis of the roots of the Sudanese conflict, which has many theories to understand Kuamnh, including those due to the conflict to British colonialism, and its presence in Sudan, and here is d. Baker, this theory fell by the translation of historical and put the blame on the elites of the North's failure to correct the situation, as well as continuing the war very actively burned everything and everybody in the south and Darfur. The book consists of three chapters, Chapter I talk about identity crisis in the north of Sudan, and when you try to analysts Sudanese to understand the roots of war, follow these several methods of analysis, where the first generation focused mainly on Britain and its role in the separation of the south from the north. The second generation of analysts to pass the center of attention of the external enemy (Great Britain) to the enemy (internal), and worsened after the war that claimed millions of dead and injured and displaced persons and refugees. This analysis tries to access the roots of the conflict as a result of non-recognition of cultural specificities of the South, which was first recognized in the Declaration of June 9, 1969, which was built on the basis of the Addis Ababa Agreement. According to the writer of the (quasi-unanimity) about the identity of the conflict as a struggle between (center and margin ) that the country is suffering from a crisis of national identity, not a bilateral conflict between South and North (who feels that Arab and Muslim), and seeks to identify each country on this basis, and the transfer of identity to the South to the distorted reflection of itself. enters the book in academic-oriented analytical definitions of the (identity (f) commonality) and (self-configure) and (change of identity, dimensions and crisis) to be up to the factors of the crisis in northern Sudan, and returned by the author to imagine themselves as Arabs, Koreans and contrast with the Arabs see them. The second factor is the ambiguity of identity for the North Sudanese, and their disorder to the fall in the test Alantmaii to ethnic classification in addition to the third factor is the sense of the northern Arab father who does not appear in Sahnth and contempt for the African nation by the body phenomenon .. It (the deposition of identity) to those who do not find an appropriate subject to fission and deep in the depths of the self-perception of itself and its image and a split between facies and culture .. It is split between the faces of black African and Arab culture, white, and the basis of its scale (color white), which becomes significant value and an indication of the status of the Arab identity, found on the basis of proximity and distance from the center. The author explains the absence of self-North system based on semantic (albedo ), and its attempts to move from this site and the inferior margin of the status of the identity of trying to obtain the properties of the normative status of the features of white hair and soft, Alogueni nose, and lack of features then the standard is trying to compensate for, or supplemented by (Altsahr). This awareness embarrassing marginal shift from a sense of the individual and the self-defined himself on the collective mind of the ruling political elite North, which was first taken from the decisions is to join the League of Arab States. The defeat of Arab politics, which make the Sudan itself, watching debates radicals of Arabism and Governors, who forgot the Sudan did not remember the marginal seat of the Arab League until after the defeat in 1967 to tell us the governor said Khartoum was the only place politically acceptable to the camps Arabism, he says. Baker (margin is an appropriate place for the center; pull him to lick his wounds in the flanks.) Identity and the impact of the marginal consumer to make northern Sudan and quoting the product of cultural, religious and political coming of the Arab Center, which seeks what it considers the (vacuum) to be filled. This tendency to consume products that make the North Center predisposed to cope with the Center not only politically and religiously, culturally and even (for language). The idea (mutation) Language returned by this author to the absence of features are standard features, which are replaced with verbal, excessive focus on the authenticity extends to the Arabs, which is evidence of suffering (the northern Sudanese) of the symptoms (lack of recognition), which was discussed by Charles Taylor in his book (policies of non-recognition). Baqir then subjected to configure the Arab-Islamic identity in northern Sudan in terms of historical narrative, and try to adapt the Kings identity for political purposes on the head stay in power trying to claim Arab descent, and who belonged to the kings of Funj b (Royal Order), who knew that the world is not stable and they can not be themselves, and they had a strong incentive to overthrow the Nubian identity, which hovered around doubts. The kings may Funj turned on their identity (pragmatic) to stay in power, except that the motives of the coup when the North is Alhoyue Batriakip composition of the Arab tribes, which are attributed to the father, the Arab children, as well as the hierarchy of the tribe, which contains groups such as the Allies and a Almstagirin and slaves, which could allow them belonging to the tribe But in the lower categories of peace hierarchical, as well as the concept of purity in Islam and that makes some people were trying to reach out from the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad. The third characteristic is the relationship between Islam and the Arabic language, which became sacred to the language of the Koran and that made some undercover, they believe in Arabism counties just Arab talking spokesman indicated. The formation of the Arab Islamic identity in the north continues, and the book provides a detailed since the Turks, and pushing them to the wheel of Arabization and Islamization and access to the National Islamic Front, which began in the Pan (Kae) by force. and speaks the author of the Arab culture, and contempt for black, Mtakba through the pre-Islamic periods until after the spread of Islam, and explaining the reaction of blacks on these forms of hostility and resistance to that. The issue of identity will not solve the North anxious separation, which may solve the problem of war and not (an identity crisis), which reached the summit .. This raised the question on the North for their willingness to uphold the will of the Arab or the margin to create a center of their own, says Afif The importance of destabilizing the old identity and expose the contradictions is necessary to create a new identity to enable the Sudanese to see the world the eyes of their status, and displacement of the second division of the Arab identity of Sudan to the originality
Then speaks the book in chapter II, which he called (What's behind the Darfur .. identity and civil war in Sudan), which was the title of a book of the Cairo Center for Strategic Studies and Human Rights in 2006 and is talking about the origin of all conflicts in the country is the result of ignoring plurality of identification by Alinteljessea North refused to accept the people of the South, Nuba Mountains and Abay as they are, after inheriting the post-colonial rule, entered in frenzied attempts to arabise, and is considered citizens of Darfur and Beja (extensions) for the northern Nile as Muslims and their knowledge of their status in the inferior hierarchical social status and ethnic and the exploitation of the ruling class of the mechanisms of the state, and strength to embark on social engineering, aimed to reproduce that situation again hierarchical Inqasna in the south and the Nuba Mountains; which proved wrong tests which assumed the continued control over areas (leisure) to infinity. The second paper, was entitled (farmer Death in Darfur), this paper started from a historical perspective of identity, and her recent term (Sudan), who grew up with the Turkish invasion of Egypt in 1821, as well as the identity of the South, which was unknown - at least - for the Turks and Koreans before the Turkish invasion of Egypt, which came to Sudan in search of slaves, and specific relations between the North and South based on the relationship between master and slave or owner of the goods.
This relationship persisted even after the disappearance of the institution of slavery It is a relationship based command and control and the south considering vacuum culturally and religiously, politically, is located on the north an important subject, edit, and fill the void components of the Arab and Islamic tradition. The paper has the slave trade as a basis for the relationship between North and South, said that the slave trade was practiced even after the elimination of illegally during colonial rule until 1928. describes the book as the South Britain cultural vacuum that must be protected from the culture of the north door and so on by missionaries, who worked on the development of southern identity, separate from the northern Arab identity, which is supported by the occupation authority, and placed them in a position higher than the African ethnic groups, separating - South - completely enclosed by a law areas (1922-1947 m). After the failure of Britain This policy has opted for a united Sudan, launched by graduates of the North, who had demanded the adoption of Islam and Arabic in the south, which the missionaries considered a threat to the New South identity based on Christianity and Western culture and English language. That's what actually happened after Ibrahim Abboud uprooted identity planted northern English identity, alternative and walked on this path of all governments is very active, especially the National Islamic Front, which held that the South is just a step to the consolidation of Islam in the jungles of Africa, arguing - as all previous governments - that of rebellion in the south are only harvesting What planted the church and colonialism, which had sought to inflict the south east and central Africa, which fanned the flames of conspiracy theories that have been adopted in one way or another to explain the confusion with the West since that time until now. But the ruling class had been looking for the identity of the South as a subject of conflict and not as an actor in it. Republicans and the Communists are made their point of view, the North, by their own admission, to different characteristics of the South and his demanding self-rule, a solution has been delayed for more than half a century to understand, and ask the writer extent of the losses that will be required the North to learn the lesson well from the south (circular) Lesson in the Nuba Mountains and the hills of Abay and Darfur, which was described by Kofi Annan - Secretary General of the former United Nations - that hell on earth.
This description is not just ugly, but statistics from the heart of the stories of victims of the Holocaust .. Incinerator burning human beings and trees; to put the perpetrators of this inhuman heinous crimes against their brothers in religion is at stake. Visalam victims did not help them from slavery, murder, rape, looting and forced evictions from their land. Despite all the suffering in Darfur, was insensitive feelings of some northerners on the interaction with the groans of their fellow Muslims in Darfur has displaced emotional eastwards towards Palestine and Iraq. And have been pushed aside the humanitarian aspect of the case, and the adoption of methodology and misleading in the Sudanese media, Arab and Islamic; and the rules of this approach is the denial of genocide group based on ethnicity and denial of rape and the government denied any connection between the Janjaweed, and that the problem is in essence simply a product of the environment, which gave the scarce resources of Darfur was a tribal dispute around. But the forces of imperialism sought to amplify this (simple conflict), and made her entrance on the Elimination of the Islamic civilizational project and divert world attention from its failure in Iraq and Palestine. Then the book discusses the causes of ethnic conflict by addressing the ethnic composition in Darfur, where the process of Arabization, which worked on the formulation of identity that has changed now after the conflict. where he saw supporters of African tribes in Darfur who are designated by the Arab tribes of b (blue), the Center has used his power error, and sides of the Arab tribes, which make them rethink their identity. The book deals with the idea as the Janjaweed, as agents of the killing in Darfur, and Imathlhm in the south (Nomadic), who were recruited from the Baggara tribes in Kordofan and Darfur during the third era of democracy, which in the Nomadic during its raid on the south and start killing and looting until they were big in the Ed Daein massacre, which killed 1500 people and some even burned alive and killed some of them in police stations under the eyes of the law. In the same scenario (Nomadic), but the highest rate - the work of the Janjaweed in blue, killing, raping and even Tnkila Pant scandal that the government can not cover .. Resorted to activate the maximum degree of readiness diplomatic and political and media to contain the damage, and so passionate about the media discourse targeting at the domestic level and alliance with the regulations-like, using the - government - oil contracts in bribes in the words of the author. In connection with the northern opposition parties and their position on events the author has said it stood idly by and even once at least issue a statement similar to the one released after the arrest of Brigadier General Abdel Aziz Khalid, commander of coalition forces in the UAE and handed over to Sudan. D continued. Baker criticized the rest of the Northern opposition Umma Party and the role of conflict, and considered (bias of offenders);, after coordination with the National Congress in 2003 and reaffirmed to share (shared vision and responsibility) to solve the problem, and (to launch military action is to defeat the insurgency), which they see as a point solution that agreed upon by the nation and national levels, who felt that the conflict is just a dispute over resources. Afif al-Baqir continued his criticism and his criticism of those self-appointed protectors of the Arab-Islamic culture in the Sudan and denounced their views exclusionary attitudes towards other identities in the Sudan, and neurotic skeptical of any call for a rethinking of the country's identity, and showing their hatred of the draft New Sudan and those sympathetic to this project. Among those said Tayeb Salih - Khalid Al Mubarak - Ibrahim Shush - Abdullahi Ali Ibrahim. book also explains the Arab world's view of the crisis in just under the huge conspiracy against Arabs and Muslims, and Darfur is the next episode After Iraq and Afghanistan, and then come Syria and Iran, and detailed analysis of the reactions in the Arab media and Arab-Muslim scholars who adopt an attitude ethnically biased and devoid of any human sympathy with the victims, seemed to them the details of the suffering people of Darfur (trivial) in the map of strategic interests in the Zionist conspiracy against Islam. This is the same government position, which he considered Baker (agent) for the Center, which defended him valiantly to defend the basis of strategic consideration of the Arab Center, which exceeds the importance of human life in Darfur, which have become just a gate in the sidelines of the Arab-Islamic margin, and opens on Africa, and a guard This portal is the government of Sudan
The third paper which is entitled: (on the edge of identity .. North Darfur and the facts were absent from the Abuja peace agreement) Vtptdi an introduction to the harbingers of what before the signing of the Convention, and the position of all the Parties of the Convention, whether internally or externally, explaining the circumstances of the signature, and the haste with which was directed by the Convention, and a summary of the content of the Convention and with addressing the issue of compensation and reconciliation inside Darfur - Darfur's to talk about identity that have been ignored in the Convention for non-sense delegations Darfurian Butmp bargaining problem between them and the Northern ruling class, using state mechanisms to accelerate the process of Arabization in Darfur through the mechanisms of development and education major. Baqer Al-Afif and inferred black book - which issued a number of intellectuals in Darfur - to illustrate the magnitude of the gap marginalization when he mentions that 4211 children sat for the final exam for the initial phase of between one million and a half children Darfurian, a number less than the number of primary school leavers, and one local in the North, but the comparison beyond logic because the number one local population in Darfur is equal to the population of the northern state as a whole. The debate over education in terms of quantity and access to the type, which ignores almost all the history, cultures, religions and ways of life of peoples in other parts of Sudan Sudan except in the north. The curriculum developed by the North indigo designed to produce two types of people: the dominant type and the type of controlling it; and the continuation of this control will be in the form of a sad irony intellectuals heroes of Darfur, who re-introduced the experience of the Arab Center and the margin of Sudan, which seeks to reach out and appease the Center that, when embody the aspirations and expectations Nile in the north, the disadvantage of racing behind them integrate into the culture, which in turn are fully satisfied with their satisfaction on the proficiency role that drew them. The author finds that the solution to the problem of Darfur unite the people of Darfur, Arabs and the fate of the blue one, and the vision of Darfurian and one rifle and one towards a common enemy marginalized and beat each other. and then finally write Baqer Al-Afif on the psychological interpretation of the civil war, which was attended by all, but with varying degrees of responsibility only of the condemned and repudiated them and work to eliminate their effects. When answering a question (Who are we?), it says that the historical legacy of our ancestors, degrades weight in determining who we are .. What can be? Probable ancestors of the earthquake was invited to the deposition of psychological cultural and ethnic identity that have faded to the example the Arab identity that made us build on the legend of Arab descent and Tmahena with the Palestinians, Iraqis and Lebanese people and Ntmah with the south and the Nuba and Darfurians. And describe the war waged by the North as an internal war between them and the black component in them, which - the war - is only an outward expression of this bitter conflict. to say finally Baqer Al-Afif that the deeper roots of war are not political or economic, but also psychological